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Definition of Horticulture and its Branches



The term horticulture has been derived from the Latin words ‘Hortus’ means garden and ‘cultura’ means cultivation. Thus literary horticulture means garden cultivation. The modern horticulture is a branch of Agriculture which may be defined as science and art of cultivating, post harvest handling and marketing of horticultural plants and products. The fruits, vegetables, spices, ornamental plants and medicinal and aromatic plants are mainly included under modern horticulture. Horticulture deals with the growing and handling of horticultural crops.
Divisions of Horticulture: The horticulture is further divided into following different divisions mainly based on plants type and their handling:
1.Pomology: The word pomology is derived from Latin word ‘pomum’ means fruit and ‘logos’ means study .Thus simply Pomology means study of Fruit. Pomology may be defined as a branch of Horticulture which deals with cultivation of fruit plants. Latter on Pomology is denominated as Fruit culture. Pomology is also called Fruit science.
2. Olericulture: Literary olericulture means cultivation of pot herbs because the word olericulture is derived from Latin words ‘Oleris’ means pot herb and ‘cultura’ means cultivation. Olericulture is a branch of Horticulture which deals with science and practice of vegetables growing. The olericulture is also called Vegetable Culture or Vegetable Science.
3.Ornamental Horticulture: Ornamental Horticulture is a science and practice of growing aesthetic plants. The ornament horticulture includes both flowering and non-flowering type of plants and may be classified into following sub divisions:
i- Floriculture: The science and practice of growing and arranging ornamental flowering plants is termed as Floriculture. Floriculture only deals with flowering plants of aesthetic values.
ii-   Arboriculture: Arboriculture deals with growing of trees for aesthetic purposes.
iii-Turf grass science: The science and art of developing Turf grass for lawn purpose is called Turf grass science. .Turf grass science is use full in the development and maintenance lawns and play grounds for football and golf.
iv-Landscaping: The cultivation of the ornamental plants either flowering or non flowering in association with other aesthetic features or elements to beautify a demarcated area of land is called Landscaping. The other elements used with ornamental plants may of living or nonliving in nature. Landscaping is also called Landscape architecture that plays important role in the beautification of parks, institutional and residential campuses.
v-Interiorscaping: The science and art of indoor plants growing to beautify the interiors of a building is called interiorscaping. Interiorscaping plays important role in beautifying the interiors of houses, hotels, offices and malls.
4.Plantation Crops Culture: The plantation crops culture deals with science and practice of plantation crops growing.
5.Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Culture: This is recently developed branch of horticulture which deals with growing and handling of medicinal and aromatic plants.
6. Post Harvest Management: The branch of horticulture which deals with Post harvest handling, processing and marketing of horticultural products is called Post Harvest Management. It is also termed Post Harvest Technology.

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