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Apple: Crop regulation, Maturity indices and Yield

Fruit setting: In apple often yield is adversely affected due to less fruit setting. The spray of Miraculan @ 0.75ml/l of water or Biozyme/ Protozyme@ 2ml/l water at bud swell and petal fall stages improves the fruit setting in apple.
Fruit thinning: It is practiced to avoid over cropping and to improve fruit quality. Hand thinning of flower cluster is done to retain 2-3 fruit lets per cluster. Spraying of 10ppm NAA at petal fall stage or at 15 mm fruit length is effective in fruit thinning.
Fruit drop: The three waves of fruit drops have been observed in apple. The first wave comes during early stage just after fruit set due to water stress, hail storms, poor pollination and improper fertilization; Second wave appears in June when fruit competes for nutrients and water under moisture stress condition in June and third waves, which causes economic loss, comes at pre harvest stage due to physiological reasons or any disorder. The application of 10ppm NAA (Planofix 1ml/4.5l water) one week before expected fruit drop wave controls the fruit drop effectively.
Maturity indices, Harvesting and yield: The apple becomes ready to harvest 120-140 days after full bloom depending upon varieties. In India apple is harvested from July to November depending upon location and cultivar but best quality of apples is harvested around October at higher altitude of Jammu & Kashmir and Himanchal Pradesh. The T.S.S. of fruits varies from 12-14 % while fruit firmness varies from 8.2 to 8.7kg at fruit maturity. In India average productivity of apple is 10 tons /ha that can be increased up to 20-25 tones/ha 

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