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Processing Potentiality of Fruits Grown in Waste Land

The fruits are rich source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants which play significance role in human beings’ life. The fruits were well known as a protective food and presently fruits have drawn researchers’ attentions because of its antioxidant’s capacity. The fruits like aonla, bael, jamun, guava, mahua, ber, karonda, phalsa, barhal etc. are known for its cultivation on waste and neglected lands on which are usually not suitable for cultivation of normal fruits and agronomical crops.  Most of these species have wide adoptability as well as high degree of tolerance against adverse soil as well as climatic conditions hence can thrive even under most adverse agro-climatic situations. The waste lands fruits have high nutritional, therapeutical and medicinal values but most of species of these fruits are not popular as desert fruits because of difficulties in use and astringent taste. Not much is known about the processing and market acceptability of the products of these waste lands and underutilized fruits species whereas processing into good quality processed products increase the consumption of these fruits thereby encourage the growers to expand the area under organized orcharding of such fruits.   

Aonla (Emblica officinalis)

Aonla also known as Indian Gooseberry can be grown successfully in neglected marginal and sodic waste lands in which common fruit crops cannot thrive well. Aonla is good means to expand fruit cultivation in waste land. Fruit has got high value among indigenous medicines and used in both unani and ayurvedic systems of medicines due its medicinal and therapeutic values since long back in India. The aonla is rich source of vitamin ‘c’ in fresh as well as in dry or processed form because it contains a chemical substance known as polyphenols which retards the oxidation of ascorbic acid. The polyphenols and vitamin ‘c’ make aonla richer in antioxidants very important for human health. Aonla fruits can be processed into chavanprash, trifla, pickle, preserve, candy, jam, syrup, aonla supari, aonla laddoo and dried shreds. Aonla pulp can also be blended with medicinal plants like aloe vera to prepare processed products. Kanchan, Chakaiya, NA6 and NA9 varieties have comparatively low content of fibre and fairly good amount of ascorbic acid hence, they are most suitable for processing of various products as mentioned above. Aonla fruit is very rich in pectin and acid hence, it can be also utilized for jelly making. The aonla processed products can be popularized in National as well international markets under “UNDER HEALTH FOOD” brand because of its medicinal and nutritional properties.

Bael (Aegle marmelos)

The bael is very hardy plant in respect of soil and climatic condition it grows in variety of soil including swampy, arid, stony and alkaline soils of 5 to 10 pH range. Ripe bael fruit contains very good amount of riboflavin and is a tonic, restorative, laxative and good for heart and brain. Mature green fruits are used to make preserve and candy but proper attention has not been given for utilization of ripe fruits. Ripe fruit can be utilized for processing particularly for beverages such as RTS, squash, syrup etc. due to its excellent flavour and medicinal values. Pulp colour plays an important role in beverage industry. The beverages made from the varieties having orange colour of pulp gave better organoleptic quality than others. The Narendra Bael- 5, Narendra Bael- 7 and Narendra Bael- 9 are cultivars for commercial cultivation in sodic waste lands,

Jamun (Syzygiuum cuminii)

An established jamun tree can with stand with water logging for a month hence it is suitable fruits for water logged waste lands. Jamun fruits that are also known as black plum or Indian Black Berry having medicinal properties and are rich source of antioxidants. The fruits and seeds are recommended for use to the diabetics. Its fruits can be processed into excellent quality of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Round and oblong are the two types of jamun germplasms commonly found grown in eastern Uttar Pradesh. In general, the oblong types had more pulp/seed ratio which is one of the most important attributes for processing industry. It is worthwhile to note that jamun has high percentage of pectin which makes its fruits suitable for jelly making. A good quality of vinegar rich in medicinal properties and considered to be useful in diabetics is also prepared from the jamun fruits.

Mahua (Madhuca indica)

Mahua is suitable plant to grow on neglected waste lands it needs no much care after establishment. Both flowers and fruits of mahua are eaten by people in various ways. Mahua flowers are regarded as cooling, tonic and demulcent. They are used in cough and colds. Mahua flowers are rich in sugar, vitamins and minerals. Flowers are used for making liquors (Brandy) through distillation after fermentation because it contains considerable number of fermentable sugars. They are eaten with milk after sun-drying or baking into cakes. They are also used as feed for livestock. The Seeds contain high percentage of edible oil, protein and minerals. Mahua oil can be an excellent vegetable oil for processing into cooking vanaspati. The mahua cakes can be used as organic fertilizer.

Karonda (Carissa carandas)

The karonda is suitable for fencing fruit orchards in waste lands. It can be cultivated in saline, rocky and arid soils. Fruits are very rich in iron and anthocyanins like antioxidants and are very useful in cure of anaemia. The mature karonda fruits can be processed into candy, jelly and pickle whereas ripe fruits are found to be suitable for processing into beverage like syrup and squash. The karonda candy is used in place of cherry in baking industries. There is no named variety of Karonda. Four types of fruit (based on colour) have been observed. Maroon colour is rich in anthocyanin pigment in addition to ascorbic acid content hence; maroon colour genotype can be an ideal type for processing into jelly, candy and beverages.

Guava (Psidium guajava)

The fruit plant that can be grown in water logged waste lands due to its capacity to with stand with water logging for months. Fruit is a rich and cheap source of vitamin ‘c’. It contains 4 to10 times more vitamin ’c’ than to some citrus fruits. It has fair amount of Calcium and pectin. Sardar (L-49) variety is highly productive and most suitable for processing of various products such as beverages like RTS and squash. A good quality jelly of guava flavour can also be prepared from the fruits. In addition, fruits can be used to prepare trophies and fermented products viz. cider and wine.

Phalsa (Grewia subinaequalis)

The Phalsa flourish well on moderately alkaline and neglected waste lands. Fruits are good source of antioxidants and fare source of vitamins and having medicinal properties. It cures inflammation, heart and blood disorders, fevers and constipation being a digestive tonic. There is no distinct variety available in phalsa. Two distinct types i.e., Dwarf and tall were identified by the Horticulturists. The productivity of Dwarf type is more in comparison to Tall one. The ripe fruits are suitable for processing into beverages.

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)

The Tamarind can be grown successfully in gravelly red loam, alkaline & sodic soils and degraded waste lands. The Tamarind fruits are rich source of minerals particularly phosphorus and calcium and good source of riboflavin and pectin. The fruits are also rich in tartaric acid. The mature Tamarind fruits are processed into jelly, chutney, glazed and crystallized candy whereas ripe tamarind fruits were found suitable for nectar, juice, jam and sauce preparation.

Wood Apple (Limonia acidisma)

The wood apple is a fruit plant that can be grown in most neglected, degraded, marginal and even in saline waste lands very successfully without much care. The wood apple fruits are fare in proteins and riboflavin content. The mature fruits are found to be rich in pectin content and ripe wood apple fruits having plenty of its aromas. The mature and ripe fruits are suitable for jelly making and ripe fruits are used for processing into beverages. There is no recognize cultivar of Wood Apple but the genotype bearing fruits of thin shell, lesser number of seeds and rich flavour are considered to be best for processing.

 

  

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